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June 11, 2019

Just three things could save 94 million people from heart disease

Image courtesy of Stuart Miles at FreeDigitalPhotos.net
These three things could save 94 million people from heart disease.
In a new study, researchers found that three public health interventions could save 94 million people from premature death caused by heart disease.
The three interventions are lowering blood pressure, cutting sodium intake, and reducing trans fat from the daily diet.
They suggest that the three interventions can have a huge health impact on heart health through 2040.
The research was led by Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health.
In the study, the team used global data from multiple studies and estimates from the World Health Organization to make their calculations.
They estimated that scaling up treatment of high blood pressure to 70% of the world’s population could extend the lives of 39.4 million people.
In addition, cutting sodium intake by 30% could stave off another 40 million deaths and could also help reduce high blood pressure, which a major risk factor for heart disease and stroke.
Eliminating trans fat could prevent 14.8 million early deaths.
The team also found that more than 50% of all delayed deaths, and 66% of deaths delayed before age 70, will be among men.
They suggest that many programs and policies would be necessary to reduce premature deaths from heart disease.
For example, one important strategy would be to increase the use of blood pressure drugs that are safe and affordable.
The team admits that scaling up the three health interventions would be a “huge challenge,” but they added that previous analyses have shown that the interventions are achievable and affordable.
They believe that these are realistic goals that have been shown to be attainable on a smaller population.
Now people need the commitment to scale up the programs to achieve them globally.
The lead author of the study is Goodarz Danaei, associate professor of global health at Harvard Chan School.
The study is published in Circulation.

May 31, 2019

Bank Draft vs Certified Cheque Head to Head Difference

Difference between Bank Draft vs Certified Cheque
Basis – Bank Draft vs Certified ChequeBank DraftCertified Cheque
Key differenceBank drafts are issued by banks and are guaranteedCheques are issued by customers and are not guaranteed however a certified cheque is similar except that the bank employee verifies if the fund is available to make a payment keeps that amount aside and then signs or certifies that the amount is available
MeaningA bank draft is a payment instrument that is issued by the bank on request of the payerCertified Cheque is a payment instrument that allows business and individuals to settle transactions. This facility is provided by the bank where the drawer’s account is present
IssuerA bank draft is issued by the bank on request from its customers. Bank directly makes transfers to the bank account which may be in the same bank or another bankThe certified cheque is issued by a customer who holds an account in the bank and orders the bank to make a payment to the specified person or to the bearer of the cheque
SignatureBank Draft does not require customers signature. However, there is a certified bank draft which is signed by the bank official which makes it more secureCertified cheque requires customers signature. Also, a bank certifies a cheque by adding the word ‘Certified’ to the signature
Process1. In case of a bank draft, there are banks representatives who act as an intermediary.2. Bank issues draft on your request but processes it only after verifying that the account has sufficient funds to cover the cheque.3. At this point, the bank deducts the amount from your bank account.The process is complete once the recipient deposits or cashes the draft1. In the case of certified cheque, there is also an intermediary involved which is the bank employee2. The bank employee checks if the issuer has sufficient funds in the account3. After it is confirmed the employee processes it. The amount is deducted after the employee certifies it
Stop PaymentThe possible way to stop payment for a bank draft is when it is lost or destroyed. The bank may provide with a replace issue draft insteadA certified cheque guarantees payment will be made this means it is not possible to stop payment after the certified cheque is issued
SecurityBanks charge a lower fee for bank draft in comparison to certified chequeThe certified cheque is guaranteed and banks charge a higher fee to issue it
ParticularsDate, the amount payable, payees nameDate, name, the amount in words and figures, signature

March 24, 2019

8 PCB Grounding Rules to Live Your Engineering Life By

8 PCB Grounding Rules to Live Your Engineering Life By

Grounding isn't all that important, right? It’s just the foundation that we build all of our electronic designs on. But what about those signals! The truth is, grounding is the most important part of your entire design, and we all tend to ignore it until it becomes a huge problem. Without a stable ground, you’ll never pass clean signals from one device to another.
Maybe you've designed a digital device with some variance in your ground and data can still move safely around. However, consider something like a high-reliability medical system. If that device gets zapped with a high-voltage ESD charge, you better hope you properly designed your ground. In sensitive electronic designs such as these, proper grounding can mean the difference between life and death.
Here are 8 PCB grounding rules to live your engineering life by, keep them in your back pocket!

#1 – Leave nothing unattached

Nothing should remain unattached on your PCB layout. If there’s an open space on your board, fill it with copper and vias to connect with your ground plane. This will create a structured path for all of your signals to efficiently get to ground.

#2 – Never slice up your ground layer

Most engineers working on four layer boards will have a dedicated ground layer. This works great as long as you don’t route traces on this layer. Once you do, you've effectively created a ground current loop. Keep your ground layer whole at all times.
never-slice-up-your-ground-layer
This return path has gotten unwieldy with a gapped plane. (Image source)

#3 – Always provide a common ground point

An electronics system, whether that’s a single or a multi-board system, needs a single point for all grounds to come together. This might be the metal frame on a chassis or a dedicated ground layer on your PCB. You’ll commonly hear this referred to this common ground point as star grounding.

#4 – Minimize series vias

Be sure to minimize series vias on your ground paths and instead send component grounds directly to your dedicated ground plane. The more vias you add to your board the more impedance you have to deal with. This is especially important for fast transient currents that can turn an impedance path into a voltage differential.

#5 – Grounding before routing

A poorly designed ground puts your entire device at risk. The same can’t be said for messing up a single signal. Be sure to properly design your ground first before doing any routing. This will serve as the foundation for your entire routing process.

#6 – Know where your currents are going

Many designers only think about where their signal is traveling to, but every signal has a return path to take through ground. Both the sending and return path of your signal will have the same current which can affect power stability and ground bounce. You can use Kirchhoff’s Current Law to understand how current will travel through your circuit.

#7 – Plan for dynamic variance between grounds

Always plan for dynamic variance when sending ground connections between boards in a multi-board system. This is especially true when working on applications that require long-distance cables. For these situations, you can use low voltage differential signals, optical isolators, and common-mode chokes to keep variance under control.

#8 – Mind your mixed-signal floor planning

The analog parts of your board need to be kept separate. This includes analog-to-digital converters and digital-to-analog converters. When designing the “floor plan” of your PCB, be sure to keep these areas isolated. An ADC’s ground can be tied back to a common ground point where digital signals can be passed to other parts of your PCB.

When In Doubt, Ground It Out

Ground is the foundation of your entire electronics house. It’s easy to forget about this with all the focus on signal routing. However, without a clear return path, all that time spent worrying about signals will have gone to waste. Don’t ignore your ground until it becomes a problem, make it your priority! Live by the 8 rules above, and you’ll have a strong foundation to grow on for the rest of your engineering life.

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